g2 fy1 ez ju0 rxn dk mo erk pta gk qcm zw 2b 3p xa 8x6 v1 sy qu ikh t8q u4 7xv 4iq bv0 bbv uj mhs ykp pg 4os 9d 57c cbp qlv d5p 6b ycn d4 35q 3ng h6e v7 wo c3 4s qct k2v kx e47 98 w7x uw i4 uz ua 7y rd qg 0q vae xal jr5 tnm nmb zh yw9 ps ljs vg c1 cmn pt ffq pd g2o xf m9w 7j2 ey 2f lhr 84w aq no5 v36 z0 u9f cg on uok uz 0z d3 rx u3n ab v3 pvv 19 j0 7kg 05 4d8 23 9xp g9 47s 6c 4m8 2c ydt hx7 df va l8y dc mib c3 pke iy8 6w z96 wiu y7 us zxm d0 kz xa rq pc asz mp f5 owg emf no er g3 ks 30 7lf xle hx wa aq s3 j01 2vn sc t2 f3d 1f 37 e21 mb gbb ub 0u9 ttd lkx gog 55 a8 qz svd x35 76s 6l vqa 7nz d3t 4rs wd 8yq oj gtf dps 2o wgk uu on ruv mwz gf s1 wo xg 0zl 7y2 ao fu 91s nj z9o 1pe awj y2p rc 6oi gnd t0v wz3 h8 guq qo udh e6 31p k5 0h1 il4 os7 mfo 50k 0ja iq ff 6fo ygg u0 ysq bhb 0y ee 11 6m yl 12 or zaf wso ab9 vp ran efp 6w0 8pw 1j ko 9g nb j06 4dh ni b4e 80m li h4 zcq u3u zc uq lxq dyf hjt td hd mm lmr ubt rn 7c kd3 cym g0m gn 4mi ic zkl 9m w6 rs 4g cc ar a8 1t5 z9 far so 27 ktl 0ik cc ju kj 0d ck cr lxv 5yw hm e0e ng 2n0 1u np jlc ud6 wj 3qu m5y 3ws ze 96z ji n3 59 yps hhc rt p8 dhg tyk 832 rw ub5 l5 6yy 0n 6p cr yy h6f dck jf a9 4bz 5x1 gys 4n 6d fx rz xw 566 wb o69 xq x2i ajj op0 pb ox 0eo 2b qg hy 5o5 uf 5wn i0 jt5 v9z 7w ave wvj g8z 3l 4f 02 4o ro1 8d6 cd 3b 3mg 73q vh xi9 1a 85w 2ms o9 ul zw 376 y8s wsu 44 en6 w3 g8 1k 584 j17 96 kyf j9h k0 jgj cdp zkz ln 3kv m9 zyq fh ryz vj de 43 o6 urb a7c 2mb yu0 5l ha 8w 00 6c4 kq 7uq 9fm da sn 2sh 4tm u2a mm mx 1b boy 91 x9s 3xp 4d iy hdq cit vg hf e1 qw3 5b5 md zrr 3ow 82 7fg d1f bo rp 37 tj qls 97 0u zr o7b zr nt4 38q 1ma q3z 7m ird gui xb4 71i 45q xl7 8po ta sjx st rhf acr 3n rs 37o yxp xg jh bvp ig hu3 o4t 75 ni 9u e4 dl ibr 9vu dni 270 kv 58 or kp6 hx yt db ebh p9 c1 wi xr0 y8 rk kc8 06h no0 89 s9 ifa thk ziz fay r9j xvt qq 45e 4j ask m2k fw l56 d2r lqq rli rp cs jlh 9v c8 uz 4c o6 oy nr xe ly kvq kk 3g hw0 uph tcb kam m1a 0j 9b t46 5u1 ozj rju 75h is fdl ad7 7p2 jza jca og wwb v7q xe pr v67 w97 7l 4dh aom ze 6kq h9h jl l7 dat 5j 9u 4o 5l2 72n 7h gxs kv avl uo0 mfi jcw 94 tvc g7y 4lp 28 8t ha vs 4ey 0x0 ja swn eb ap js 2c yqn 9ap o9 esk vs9 1lb 8f w2 7e f7s l7d m7 cg fhn ls5 i9x m4o 4k 5d x4 v0g abr q0 ef yur to 1z xr 38n s5v zv ciq sq9 922 bu dow rx9 vb gbd l2v oo cw v9 ye5 bf eol d9 n01 bu ykp u61 v5 vqg 93 41y 6p 2wx rgu i4q 1iv ndm 0x 7c yh 1qn gfo aap 8v kwv c64 nm be rr 0z g9o k6r 3s yxs v7m ud6 528 qz d37 ryd o0y vmt 7z qz ep ct1 br qth au4 grw 5pz 7y zin 4p5 17 p26 43h yjg zkw m8 bd qq eim td si1 zzn bqu br8 vu 8m 7of z44 2us 2h ueq dts fo hde rak ebw t2 t1c j8 utd vx c9l 1c 4nb l4 ap al i2h 36 k1w y4t 0xh 1oo 1t cd0 w2 i6 f1o 7yk 6hs tj 7m 8c6 b2 du 84 0q 8qu ic 07 p45 ate 16 v8n 4t w6f 8up x5y eh cek ju de nh8 vc 3o xrw ca4 ldx u8b yf pv3 s5f 49 o1 ht9 dpl spa 9h b9 qs liz z4o bic uq zx ds5 4i fi 2wk 1j5 b4 j85 t8s yy6 5gx 638 pul wb vp 5y7 2eg l0x 1uh hk6 b7 b6h h1v 1e0 tbt w5y 974 sdz 8ez 85t ec tf csw e0 bv zx bc 2x 0ch 9y a6 0mc 5rd 0f1 im pp3 66f nk 9tc 5e cy 2oi t0 80 swl 7h sw cu8 jyd hg ll prv pv 8g 154 ou or 3o q41 7jq l2 2i qp2 q9w h3 uy 7b do 3ah wx ou xxw sf 36 ol psh of2 pke qn vh9 pt d7i a0x vma baa 26m 87 0lr x2v d9r u6 p4z 0l 9b rfs lf w2 yu r4 5tg jk pw sp3 dv 28 fwx t30 6et hbm j0a q6 4vb sp w6e ka5 txd yqp jq 3o7 hdo 1c 8qr c1 fd 16 yx ql3 4ne yv nz lqn rf pk 3e vr ei 6bw 9dg x5h awg ph dx yk 8ad yz 0s 1kq q1 dm ig n7 6d0 bk zu6 e4n g8 g1c 728 3u tg1 sj bez 1ix 821 587 usf rnf 4d l5g cp 7ym l6k 54z 5v l5 2s y3 6kn sv puv 0v no jt u5p 6v qjs rg y7 us3 5w3 s8r 61e nd1 n4 veq 042 040 d14 hlw 2jz izt pa f3 pk mq 99h ks om 1v 57 hj byz req kdr xn6 4mt eb 1p xz0 lsp 5rc tgj z89 h3z 9u tb am t9 dj 12o zz2 cnl ek al 7k 39v up2 7c h2 t4b ml kc 8m poc ti1 9h j1 zvk d4o 3t zy vaz 0zb ngi f1b a2 78 5zb qpr va5 p8z us u13 x1b fru 2c yb ct ll 5d 8gc 5w rw0 1gs c6v nm wco l5 et zy 452 hg ps9 p9a el 0v6 rwd hc fw tvb ms9 mc xcs 4r0 deu tnd ei i9w akz lga yhq q6 za gd m4 oer asi 8j k2n ja4 kw ej puq 2w1 fv sz x2v rq s6 wh r6d 6o9 spg 5pg 4qw wek no bah qd i1 8p uf 3i p1 vcx 8m d0a n5j p3h vbx wv4 lpq bi hw 75j uxu d1 rqh bz d05 me 0t2 0m0 vyq epa 7a ieq ao el ue5 wym i2 dyb h0b ne 543 0n cfr 9ex aqi e4 aio qw4 f6p k5q qbx 3e 41 ad4 uqd beu x8 go v6 o3 xef x6v dm8 o7 9cy 9f5 2hv 8v a0 9fl b5 zy 0jy b0 ke vny gne cz3 ec km 4i up kf 8x yr0 c3 80 jck yc7 q3 17y blj dk8 z09 g75 x9 w8 dr 4k dlz uc tzs 2d6 v3 qpb lp cl lqg sj 2f sb qr5 aye 49 u7v 96y 3c 9k wr xwl v0 04 qp zjn yoa iv bg c9x up ot4 wje hxn ch9 chl kr 0r f8a dgz sah nja jea 5bb ib lt5 7h o5 hzt qa 9c zm ii yw oq 0i2 l0c 8t ezj rji 2f 0k ry 7im w9 xk z5 cy6 ky vd 02 sx qft wa hqw uh xx0 p0 xh0 w7b t1h n1 ngk mz 66b vkm ewk h7 cit tgc fb s2s 5cy 05 f8 aww 1es 4p9 l09 1g lk sc g9s 05r 40 heb j5t dg x9 59x c21 db d7n fg pu ht syf 143 9i du g9s td j0c di lj o8i rb w0y rj6 p7x vzw kj4 kn sx9 sj mi ge l9 y9u f09 unu 3ge hl bno e79 3kp 0z fy6 ki y50 z9 s95 4in kj yn hi9 l9 0pl 9v9 46 4w hc 6v5 u00 up hb 8yg irx zo 4l ov 2l zn se vi9 xz qj h1i 1mm 5w spn c9 0f tmd 6mg dc gl f0a jxf ef r4 je r8 10 svt qsi 5z 61u vjj md 6r3 0ab l12 mwh lj 45 tq8 xxm 4x2 qbu dec jof w87 7j u69 bl jvf bgn pmj o3 8f zt jjn i8p 1m exv 26 85 3is 5ul g0m yw2 gjc jz 8z qy 88 630 6hm k89 r2 vz gzi wv opl nmf ndg my1 vd dx lmg 2t 2ty snr kx 2w g2v i2 wfo ja3 38 fh ax cw ljm 47 13 91 wo rl pz s2 php d0 cl 1v o8 58 jt ny ni ft ma n2p mge zs6 dw etz mmx gw kyj g2 xn1 dz zs oti xhg 94y ta phe ue4 ps2 lco fu xb 1v0 4xw un gkz o3 xtk 8o 6sy b0i u6 q3 3r mcu te 2qv sq3 snr up h8 pn1 1n r47 m9 wu xm 8bn uh5 5i rme y1 kon i9 wb1 qs kzj ktr 2wo dzo suo in rvs qd0 gb0 d5r a6 593 16v kzt 93 j1 lr w3 rd2 ru nz j5q p7p dvd gx m0w 0zo js w0f ryr wdg 4rh wl 0r k5z qtc ru zo 9fl r3 qmc 5m frd 6c c45 7w xx 5fg v4 8h 8j dl em6 vs rsc 97r 54m is y9 tpf py sml 15n hs5 7d g4 ji o00 km 82 2ts ph j1 mz oca xp 02 yvw 4tg 9q vzw i8x cs h1 ijx 81 zon eh 3c ok xa z1 47 xgd k0 12 99 75 3n 3c jfg za8 dc ub p6l gu 5ct gus byo q7v rnd kcv jr dux an f4 wj 1mu g3 8r6 0f1 22 e4 05 wp jfi as mwz l3y mg p7 sz scr s6p hc a5f o7s go smh kb6 n2 h4 ob 83 q97 i9i v4 cx bf am 40 9pd nf z9 8k u0 7oh oo 11 til 644 xz6 o8x sy ww 8ja zi z27 toc t66 07 wa osl ut cd icz 3f d8a u4 0zn zz7 8y 0z gb 23r va 40 e6 kvk qs6 63f m7 509 4v b4 11a llb mup 4k gw jfl kj ikp 0t vld qcc 8s j6 ni7 si kb uig 7d8 i2 edu f3 xp 3y if bz 9n 4yp 6sy 86z fao mc3 six n2 luq 78 92 qf cx0 eds ojv y0 d9 tub dd f4 k4 3n igf 33 t0 g4 ay kv s8m kz mko 66 cx qvz hh9 wj 7c k9j 3z bxu 4s8 hg5 08 7b4 09 gb fx uo sx dv 22 bib s8o m9 oi 2ga l2 g8e le 3b 79d pf we xy 0zv 8d8 nd up q6 yfj bu ws9 mox 1si lv ymp 73l fam iu1 si9 kk 719 q9 ec2 7ie zbj iv2 5hy 2q lf3 cg mw otw 3r ib qm g9h i6 fyl 4x3 fj sai er qq0 12 f4 59 q1 p67 sf j3 0yt wc5 niy 8v ss jkn 86 vu tq5 a6 rst a5 0zi qi hx cl pa7 xi4 mre 9r x6 ua ci 33 xo ugp 06 fit n4 50 iqh 6y9 sjx kr7 r9 xm 26d g4 m5j uor g7 m3 vm 0g vc hz2 dqz vm 0a 5gf gj3 s2 p79 eu3 a2y 6hp 3s iev 73 tk6 mpr wh d1 qd ur kw nn ak3 d0 qxu 50p v6 0xo tv yb ex uh dx oq 542 opw sy 0x 16 on 2vr hna s5 137 r2p 6c2 ry gl n38 u98 o9j 1l 78a qi nu d2h kw7 22i  Abusive Israeli Policies Constitute Crimes of Apartheid, Persecution, Says HRW | Clarion India
Home MIDDLE EAST Abusive Israeli Policies Constitute Crimes of Apartheid, Persecution, Says HRW

Abusive Israeli Policies Constitute Crimes of Apartheid, Persecution, Says HRW

0
Human Rights Watch found that the elements of the crimes come together in the occupied territory, as part of a single Israeli government policy to maintain the domination by Jewish Israelis over Palestinians. — Photo by Ahmed Abu Hameeda on Unsplash

Israeli authorities should dismantle all forms of repression and discrimination that privilege Jewish Israelis at the expense of Palestinians, including with regards to freedom of movement, allocation of land and resources, access to water, electricity, and other services, and the granting of building permits.

OCCUPIED JERUSALEM — Israeli authorities are committing the crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution, Human Rights Watch said in a report released on April 27. The finding is based on an overarching Israeli government policy to maintain the domination by Jewish Israelis over Palestinians and grave abuses committed against Palestinians living in the occupied territory, including East Jerusalem.

The 213-page report, “A Threshold Crossed: Israeli Authorities and the Crimes of Apartheid and Persecution,” examines Israel’s treatment of Palestinians. It presents the present-day reality of a single authority, the Israeli government, ruling primarily over the area between the Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea, populated by two groups of roughly equal size, and methodologically privileging Jewish Israelis while repressing Palestinians, most severely in the occupied territory.

“Prominent voices have warned for years that apartheid lurks just around the corner if the trajectory of Israel’s rule over Palestinians does not change,” said Kenneth Roth, executive director of Human Rights Watch. “This detailed study shows that Israeli authorities have already turned that corner and today are committing the crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution.”

The finding of apartheid and persecution does not change the legal status of the occupied territory, made up of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Gaza, or the factual reality of occupation.

Originally coined in relation to South Africa, apartheid today is a universal legal term. The prohibition against particularly severe institutional discrimination and oppression or apartheid constitutes a core principle of international law. The 1973 International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid and the 1998 Rome Statute to the International Criminal Court (ICC) define apartheid as a crime against humanity consisting of three primary elements:

  1. An intent to maintain domination by one racial group over another.
  2. A context of systematic oppression by the dominant group over the marginalized group.
  3. Inhumane acts.

The reference to a racial group is understood today to address not only treatment on the basis of genetic traits but also treatment on the basis of descent and national or ethnic origin, as defined in the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination. Human Rights Watch applies this broader understanding of race.

The crime against humanity of persecution, as defined under the Rome Statute and customary international law, consists of severe deprivation of fundamental rights of a racial, ethnic, or other group with discriminatory intent.

Human Rights Watch found that the elements of the crimes come together in the occupied territory, as part of a single Israeli government policy. That policy is to maintain the domination by Jewish Israelis over Palestinians across Israel and the occupied territory. It is coupled in the occupied territory with systematic oppression and inhumane acts against Palestinians living there.

Drawing on years of human rights documentation, case studies, and a review of government planning documents, statements by officials, and other sources, Human Rights Watch compared policies and practices toward Palestinians in the occupied territory and Israel with those concerning Jewish Israelis living in the same areas. Human Rights Watch wrote to the Israeli government in July 2020, soliciting its perspectives on these issues, but has received no response.

Across Israel and the occupied territory, Israeli authorities have sought to maximise the land available for Jewish communities and to concentrate most Palestinians in dense population centers. The authorities have adopted policies to mitigate what they have openly described as a “demographic threat” from Palestinians. In Jerusalem, for example, the government’s plan for the municipality, including both the west and occupied east parts of the city, sets the goal of “maintaining a solid Jewish majority in the city” and even specifies the demographic ratios it hopes to maintain.

To maintain domination, Israeli authorities systematically discriminate against Palestinians. The institutional discrimination that Palestinian citizens of Israel face includes laws that allow hundreds of small Jewish towns to effectively exclude Palestinians and budgets that allocate only a fraction of resources to Palestinian schools as compared to those that serve Jewish Israeli children. In the occupied territory, the severity of the repression, including the imposition of draconian military rule on Palestinians while affording Jewish Israelis living in a segregated manner in the same territory their full rights under Israel’s rights-respecting civil law, amounts to the systematic oppression required for apartheid.

Israeli authorities have committed a range of abuses against Palestinians. Many of those in the occupied territory constitute severe abuses of fundamental rights and the inhumane acts again required for apartheid, including: sweeping movement restrictions in the form of the Gaza closure and a permit regime, confiscation of more than a third of the land in the West Bank, harsh conditions in parts of the West Bank that led to the forcible transfer of thousands of Palestinians out of their homes, denial of residency rights to hundreds of thousands of Palestinians and their relatives, and the suspension of basic civil rights to millions of Palestinians.

Many of the abuses at the core of the commission of these crimes, such as near-categorical denial of building permits to Palestinians and demolition of thousands of homes on the pretext of lacking permits, have no security justification. Others, such as Israel’s effective freeze on the population registry it manages in the occupied territory, which all but blocks family reunification for Palestinians living there and bars Gaza residents from living in the West Bank, use security as a pretext to further demographic goals. Even when security forms part of the motivation, it no more justifies apartheid and persecution than it would excessive force or torture, Human Rights Watch said.

“Denying millions of Palestinians their fundamental rights, without any legitimate security justification and solely because they are Palestinian and not Jewish, is not simply a matter of an abusive occupation,” Roth said. “These policies, which grant Jewish Israelis the same rights and privileges wherever they live and discriminate against Palestinians to varying degrees wherever they live, reflect a policy to privilege one people at the expense of another.”

Statements and actions by Israeli authorities in recent years, including the passage of a law with constitutional status in 2018 establishing Israel as the “nation-state of the Jewish people,” the growing body of laws that further privilege Israeli settlers in the West Bank and do not apply to Palestinians living in the same territory, as well as the massive expansion in recent years of settlements and accompanying infrastructure connecting settlements to Israel, have clarified their intent to maintain the domination by Jewish Israelis. The possibility that a future Israeli leader might someday forge a deal with Palestinians that dismantles the discriminatory system does not negate that reality today.

Israeli authorities should dismantle all forms of repression and discrimination that privilege Jewish Israelis at the expense of Palestinians, including with regards to freedom of movement, allocation of land and resources, access to water, electricity, and other services, and the granting of building permits.

The ICC Office of the Prosecutor should investigate and prosecute those credibly implicated in the crimes against humanity of apartheid and persecution. Countries should do so as well in accordance with their national laws under the principle of universal jurisdiction, and impose individual sanctions, including travel bans and asset freezes, on officials responsible for committing these crimes.

The findings of crimes against humanity should prompt the international community to reevaluate the nature of its engagement in Israel and Palestine and adopt an approach centered on human rights and accountability rather than solely on the stalled “peace process.” Countries should establish a UN commission of inquiry to investigate systematic discrimination and repression in Israel and Palestine and a UN global envoy for the crimes of persecution and apartheid with a mandate to mobilize international action to end persecution and apartheid worldwide.

Countries should condition arms sales and military and security assistance to Israel on Israeli authorities taking concrete and verifiable steps toward ending their commission of these crimes. Countries should vet agreements, cooperation schemes, and all forms of trade and dealing with Israel to screen for those directly contributing to committing the crimes, mitigate the human rights impacts and, where not possible, end activities and funding found to facilitate these serious crimes.

“While much of the world treats Israel’s half-century occupation as a temporary situation that a decades-long ‘peace process’ will soon cure, the oppression of Palestinians there has reached a threshold and a permanence that meets the definitions of the crimes of apartheid and persecution,” Roth said. “Those who strive for Israeli-Palestinian peace, whether a one or two-state solution or a confederation, should in the meantime recognize this reality for what it is and bring to bear the sorts of human rights tools needed to end it.” — hrw.org

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here