Security forces in Buddhist-majority Myanmar launched a scorched-earth campaign in late August in response to alleged attacks by a Rohingya insurgent group. Thousands of people are believed to have been killed in the crackdown, which many rights activists believe was a calculated attempt to drive Rohingya from the country.

Rohingya are denied citizenship in Myanmar, where they have long faced persecution. Many in Myanmar see them as illegal migrants from Bangladesh, and deride them as “Bengalis.” Most have long lived in poverty in Myanmar’s Rakhine state, next to Bangladesh.

The hundreds of thousands who fled now live in squalid camps across the border in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Red Crescent Society estimates that at least 100,000 refugees will be exposed to extreme dangers during the coming monsoon season.